Syncing Gmail on Android

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Hi, I recently became an Android phone user (a Google Nexus, if you must know) and have set up my Gmail accounts on it. Despite my tinkering with the settings, these accounts do not seem to synchronise well with my account when I access it on a desktop/laptop.

For instance, when I send a Gmail message from my laptop, and then browse the “Sent Messages” folder on my phone, I do not see that message in that folder. Whereas it is instantly visible in that folder on when accessed on a computer.

Another situation: when I delete a message on my phone, it does not automatically delete but remains available when I access my account on the computer.

Why do all messages (whether sent or received or deleted) not automatically sync on both the phone and the computer? What can I do to rectify this situation?